Inventory Development
 Face Validity


With respect to the face validity of the TSI, Fimian (1982) first summarized the available literature during the fall of 1979 and found 135 sources and manifestations of teacher stress. These stressors were then categorized into 1 of 13 a priori factors: (a) Personal Competence, (b) Self-Relationship, (c) Conflicting Values, (d) Social Approval, (e) Isolation, (f) Expectations, (g) Self-Fulfillment, (h) Environmental, (i) Unmet Professional Needs, (j) Self-Inflicted Stress, (k) Professional Constraints, (1) Student-Teacher Relationships, and (m) Miscellaneous Demands of Teaching. Redundant and conceptually similar items were combined or deleted from the item pool, resulting in a list of 79 items.

Each item was then placed on an index card. These were distributed, individually or in small groups, to 2 faculty members and 14 graduate students from the University of Connecticut College of Education and to 16 teachers from local school districts. Respondents were asked to sort the cards into two piles: one for items most related to teacher stress and the other for items less related to stress. Related items were logged on a master list, and a check mark was recorded each time an item was selected as relevant. The teachers also provided informal written feedback about the appropriateness of item inclusion in the next version of the TSI. Judgmental screening and editing of the appraisal samples' selections from the list of 79 items resulted in a rank order of items based on the frequency of selection. The final list of 63 usable items represented 80% of the initial 79 items and was used to develop the TSI pilot form called the Teacher Stress Scale.