Inventory Development
 Suggestions for Further Research


A number of suggestions for future research using the TSI are warranted:

1. Sample sizes larger than some of those presented in this manual should be used, particularly with respect to the TSI's concurrent validity and reliability.

2. Many of those using the TSI are doing so to make teacher group comparisons. Of more importance would be the TSI's use in conjunction with one or more additional instruments that assess personality, other types of stress or anxiety, or organizational variables. For example, only limited data have been collected to determine the TSI's relationship to variables such as locus of control, peer and supervisory support, and job satisfaction. None have been conducted to date that would investigate needs deficiencies or organizational health. Using the TSI in combination with other instruments would allow future researchers to define the shape of their 11 puzzle piece" well enough that, when considered with other findings, the "larger picture" of teacher stress will become clarified.

3. With the exception of work reported by Fimian and Blanton (1986) and Farber (1981), no other investigators have conducted longitudinal studies investigating teacher stress or burnout. To his knowledge, this investigator is the only one presently tracking stress, burnout, and role problems from levels of training through the establishment of teaching careers. Considering the difficulties encountered in attempting to fund and mount such projects versus the relative attractiveness of conducting cross-sectional or "one-shot" surveys, this is not too surprising. Though yet to be confirmed, it is commonly assumed that stress and burnout are stable across time, yet subject to variation from any number of situational variables. How stress levels vary and what causes them to vary, if indeed they do, will be determined only through longitudinal projects.

4. With the exception of some of the work currently being conducted by Mark Cecil and his doctoral advisor Susan Forman, little if any work exploring the validity of the stress reduction claims proposed by consultants who establish stress management workshops, courses, or other interventions has been conducted. Do such interventions, which have become a multi-million-dollar-a-year industry, actually work? Only future and applied pre-post work linked to well-defined stress interventions will be able to answer this question.